Causes of pain in finger joints and ways to get rid of them

Why?The causes of pain in the finger joints can be completely different, but the resulting problem is the same. This is an incredible discomfort, which is very capable of poisoning life, because we make many movements with our hands during the day.

what to do?There are different ways to reduce pain. The problem is very difficult to eradicate completely, but it is also possible. The main thing is to make a correct diagnosis with the help of a specialist and choose a treatment regimen. However, it is even more important not to neglect preventive measures.

The main causes of pain in the joints of the fingers

Hand injuries

The pain from a bruised finger is quite moderate and goes away quite quickly. True, not without consequences: bleeding, bruising, hyperemia or swelling may appear in the area of the bruise. But the finger will work as usual, with less interference. Hematoma on the finger from the palm is characterized by pain of moderate intensity and subsequent peeling of the skin (dark blood accumulates in the cavity).

Subungual hematomas are much more difficult to tolerate: they are accompanied by strong pulsating and jerking pain, which is especially felt when the arm is lowered. After a bruise, the nail plate can completely or partially peel off.

hand injuries

Intense, explosive pain can be caused by a broken finger. Such injuries are accompanied by sharp pain, which then somewhat weakens, but does not disappear. The finger stops functioning normally, swells, turns into one continuous bruise, sometimes becomes pathologically immobile, deforms (in the joints and not only) and produces creaking sounds. If you try to move the painful knuckle, it twists and resists.

Frostbite on the hands is accompanied by a slight stinging pain in the first few hours, which then intensifies and becomes burning. The finger becomes bluish and swollen. With severe frostbite, the distal parts lose sensitivity, the fingers become pale and cold, and pain is felt between the injured and healthy areas.

Infectious infections

The cause of rapidly growing pain in the finger joint can be panaritium. An abscess forms, the finger swells, turns blue and hyperemia is observed. The nature of the pain is pulsating and jerking. It bothers the patient at night, especially if the offender has developed under the nail or deep in the extremity (tendon, bone, joint offender). Superficial forms of this disease (subcutaneous and cutaneous, peri- and subungual) do not particularly affect the general condition, but deep panaritium can lead to fever and general intoxication.

infectious infections lead to arthrosis

A more exotic cause of finger joint pain is chinga. It affects people who cut and process the carcasses of commercial marine animals. A small wound, crack or scratch on the skin is enough for the infection to penetrate inside and affect the entire finger. The disease begins with a minor dull pain at the site of the injury, but after a day or two discomfort also occurs in the joint, most often the proximal one, the pain intensifies, the joint begins to hurt and pulsate, the finger swells, fades. or becomes bluish in color.

Arthritis of the joints

Rheumatoid arthritis is a common cause of symmetrical pain in the finger joints of the upper extremities. The intensity of the symptoms varies: in the first degree - only mild arthralgia and stiffness of movement (which, however, quickly passes), in the second - long periods of stiffness, redness of the affected joints, limitation of their mobility, constant pain (both at rest and in motion), andin the third, it becomes impossible to move the diseased joint at all, stiffness and swelling do not disappear, hyperemia and pain are constant and very noticeable.

Usually, women ask about the causes and methods of treatment of pain in the joints of the fingers: the beautiful half of humanity most often suffers from gouty arthritis. It can affect one or more finger joints at once, causing severe sudden pain, swelling, hyperemia, elevated body temperature and immobilization of the affected finger.

Common symptoms of the disease are increased pain at night and at rest, but weaker during the day and during movement, as well as swelling of the fingers, blue or purple skin. Interphalangeal joints of the fingers are most often affected. The finger is gradually deformed in several places.

Post-traumatic arthritis affects only one joint. In arthritis caused by allergic and infectious causes (for example, diseases of a viral and bacterial nature), several finger joints can be affected at once. Professional peripheral arthritis affects only those joints that are most loaded.

In any case, pain in the joints of the fingers, the cause of which is arthritis in one form or another, bothers mainly at night, and disappears during the day, leaving only local swelling, difficulty in movement and stiffness in the morning. Long-term advanced arthritis leads to deformation of the fingers.

Degeneration of the joint due to disease

In the initial phase of arthrosis of the hands, pain in the fingers is characterized by short duration, periodicity and uncertainty. In the morning, joint movements are limited. As arthrosis progresses, the pain becomes stronger and longer, accompanies every movement of the fingers, their character is sometimes burning. Household chores and minor operations are increasingly difficult to perform with the affected hand. Lateral deformities occur, and Bouchard and Heberden nodes become noticeable.

degeneration of joints due to disease

Pathologies of tendons and ligaments

Pain in the palm and base of the finger is usually caused by stenosing ligamentitis. At first, the pain is felt only during some low-amplitude movements and pressure, but it gradually begins to appear at rest. Movements are limited, joints click. The more the disease develops, the more noticeable is the jerk after such clicks and the flexion contracture.

If the cause of the pain in the finger joints is de Quervain's disease, then the discomfort is initially noticeable only when bending and abducting this finger, but subsequently every movement causes pressing, painful pains (and sometimes you don't even have to move anything, the joint hurts even at rest). The pain syndrome often radiates to the distal phalanx, in some cases to the forearm on the side where the first finger grows.


When vasospasm occurs, Raynaud's syndrome occurs. As a result, the fingers become cold and paroxysmally numb. The second phase of the attack is followed by excruciating pain with a shooting and burning effect. The attack does not last long. After it, the distal parts of the hands become red and feel hot. The causes of this condition, which causes pain in the joints of the fingers, are very diverse. It can be:

  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • scleroderma;
  • Sharp's syndrome;
  • antisynthetase syndrome;
  • thromboangiitis obliterans of the hand;
  • occupational diseases, pathologies of the metabolic and endocrine system.

If the patient is not diagnosed with any of these diseases, then the cause of the pain in the finger joints is Raynaud's disease with its characteristic set of symptoms. Women are more susceptible to it.

Hematological, neurological and endocrine diseases can lead to erythromelalgia, but they can also occur on their own. The disease is expressed in the form of hyperemia and swelling of the fingers, burning pain, paroxysmal and paroxysmal, sometimes in both hands at once or first in one and then in the other. The attack of pain is so strong that it is simply impossible to move the fingers. You can relieve the pain by elevating or cooling the affected arm (when the limb is warmed up and lowered, the pain worsens).

Nervous diseases

If you feel a burning or shooting pain in your finger joint, the cause is probably neurological. Especially if, in addition to pain, the sensitivity of the hand is disturbed and vegetative-trophic disorders are observed.

It can be, for example, neuropathy of the median nerve. In this disease, the palmar side of the first to third fingers hurts and they cannot bend. It is not possible to move the first finger forward, and there are serious problems with squeezing the palm into a fist.

Nerve diseases lead to arthrosis

Attacks of pain in the finger joints at night and the disappearance of pain when shaking or lowering the hands may indicate carpal tunnel syndrome. In this type of neuropathy of the median nerve, the pain is also localized on the side of the palm.

If the neuropathy developed on the radial nerve, then, on the contrary, the back part of the hand and the first finger (sometimes the second and third) hurt, provided that the wrist or forearm is affected. The back of the hand can become numb, and the pain can spread to the forearm, even if it is healthy itself.

If the cause of the pain in the finger joints is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve, then these pains (in the hand and the fourth and fifth fingers) are of a radiating nature, and the main source of discomfort is in the elbow joint. The elbow and hand are especially painful in the morning.


In addition to malignant neoplasia of the hands (which people get quite rarely), benign tumors can also cause pain in the joints of the fingers: chondroma or osteoid chondroma. The pain in the first case is mild and not localized, but osteoid osteomas, on the contrary, lead to sharp pain strictly in the affected area.

Other reasons

Book spasm, which accompanies a number of neurological and mental disorders (especially occupational neuroses), also causes pain in the finger joints in men and women and requires treatment. Writing, typing on a computer keyboard or typewriter becomes painful. Excruciating, aching pain is accompanied by sharp weakness, tremors in the hand and local spasms. Pain in the finger joints can also be caused by other pathologies:

  • leukemia (Waldenström's macroglobulinemia);
  • neoplasms in the adrenal glands (aldosterome);
  • complications of diabetes (diabetic neuropathy);
  • vascular lesions (distal digital embolism in case of subclavian artery occlusion);
  • hereditary diseases (Fabry's disease);
  • typically children's diseases, for example, neuro-arthritic diathesis.
signs of arthrosis of the hand

Diagnosis and treatment of pain in finger joints

Correct diagnosis will allow you to determine the real causes of pain in the finger joints, whether it is an inflammatory or other pathological process. If the pain is very strong and it is difficult to straighten and bend the fingers, be sure to seek medical help. Your doctor will likely send you for a test, which usually consists of:

  • laboratory tests of blood, urine, rheumatic tests;
  • radiography;
  • MRI,
  • computed tomography of the fingers.

Treatment tactics are aimed not only at relieving the patient's pain in the finger joints, but also at eliminating its causes. For example, anti-inflammatory drugs (hormonal or non-steroidal) are prescribed for inflammation, and antibiotics are prescribed for infection.

The main goal of therapy in the case of dystrophic joint damage is the restoration of cartilage tissue, for which massage, physiotherapy and chondroprotectors are used. Special exercises are prescribed to restore joint mobility.

Physical therapy has proven to be the most effective way to treat small joints, including fingers. These are electrosleep, MRI and electrophoresis with novocaine, as well as a number of other procedures. During remission, it is advisable to undergo treatment in a sanatorium or resort using radon or hydrogen sulfide sources.

how to diagnose osteoarthritis

Regarding nutrition, for pain in the joints of the fingers, regardless of the causes, it is recommended:

  • eat more seafood and fish to get phosphorus, calcium and iron;
  • take apple cider vinegar to remove toxins from the body;
  • consume fish oil and linseed oil (the fatty acids found in them help normalize fat metabolism).

It is also very useful to add nuts, ginger, fruits (currants and pomegranates), radishes and lettuce to the diet. But it is advisable to limit mayonnaise, sweet and starchy, spicy and smoked foods, as well as fatty dairy products.

Prevention of pain in finger joints

Eliminate the causes of finger joint pain in men and women so that treatment is not necessary:

  • do not overcool your hands;
  • limit alcohol consumption, and if you smoke, quit the habit;
  • maintain a balance of vegetables and fruits in the diet, and less canned, spicy and fried foods;
  • treat all runny noses and ARVI, without hoping that the disease will go away by itself;
  • Make sure your weight is normal;
  • stop snapping your fingers.

Do a simple exercise to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome, so you don't have to think about how to treat finger joint pain and what are its causes. If you work a lot on the computer, then this is a must. Squeeze all the fingers into a fist, raise the thumb as if approving, and rotate it first clockwise and then counterclockwise. There are many other exercises for the finger joints.

Exercises against pain in finger joints

Make a fist

Spread your palm, stretch out your fingers, so that tension is felt in all joints and muscles. This simple action should not be accompanied by pain.

Do a simple stretch: squeeze your palm into a fist for half a minute to a minute so that your thumb rests on the rest, then release and extend all fingers, spreading them. Do this at least four times for each hand.

Extend your fingers

To make the joints of the fingers more mobile and relieve the pain when bending (regardless of the cause of the pain), repeat a simple exercise.

The palm is placed on a flat surface with the back facing upwards. Fingers should be straightened without straining the joints and held for 30-60 seconds. Then relax your hand and return to the starting position. Repeat four times with each arm.

Use this exercise to relieve pain and improve joint mobility.

Draw the claws

Another exercise for the mobility of the finger joints.

Turn your palm inside out and bend your fingers so that their tips are at the base of your knuckles, and your hand looks like a paw with claws. Hold for half a minute or a minute, repeat four or more times for each arm.

exercises for hands and fingers

Practice your grip

Regardless of the reasons that cause pain in the joints of the fingers, a person needs to somehow hold objects, handle door handles, etc. , so it is advisable to train your fingers.

Squeeze the soft ball as hard as you can for a few minutes. Let go. Repeat 10-15 times with each arm, two or three times a week (but with a gap of at least two days between sessions). The exercise is contraindicated in case of injuries to the thumb joints.


With this exercise, you exercise your finger muscles to make it easier to open various packages and doors with keys and fill the car with fuel. Squeeze the soft ball with your thumb and any other finger, holding it for half a minute or a minute. For each hand you need to repeat pinching 10-15 times. Like the previous exercise, pinching is performed two to three times a week with a mandatory interval of 48 hours between training sessions and only if the thumb joints are not injured.

Raise your finger

This exercise helps make your joints more mobile and your fingers more flexible.

The palm is placed on a smooth surface with the back facing up. You have to lift each finger one by one and put it back, but you can immediately use all fingers at the same time. You should do this 10-12 times with each hand.

Pull in your thumb

This exercise trains the thumb muscles to make it easier to grasp and lift objects (for example, cans and bottles).

Wrap the palm and thumb with an elastic band and place them on a table or any flat surface with the back side up. Using the resistance of the rubber band, move your thumb to the side, hold it there for half a minute or a minute, then relax, and so on 10-15 times with each hand. The exercise is performed two or three times a week, but not more often than once every 48 hours.

exercises for fingers with arthritis

This exercise trains the thumb muscles to make it easier to grasp and lift objects (for example, cans and bottles).

Wrap the palm and thumb with an elastic band and place them on a table or any flat surface with the back side up. Using the resistance of the rubber band, move your thumb to the side, hold it there for half a minute or a minute, then relax, and so on 10-15 times with each hand. The exercise is performed two or three times a week, but not more often than once every 48 hours.

Bend your thumb

The mobility of the thumb should also be developed.

Raise your palm in front of you, turning the back side down. Alternately, move your thumb to the side and bend it toward your palm to touch the base of your little finger. After holding it for half a minute or a minute, relax. Repeat these steps four times for each hand.

Tap with your thumb

Stiffness and pain in the joints of the fingers occur for various reasons, but, in any case, it is useful to train the thumbs to perform daily operations such as writing by hand, holding a spoon, brushing teeth, etc. they would not cause problems.

Place your palm in front of you, straightening your wrist, and touch all the others with your thumb to form the letter O. After holding it for half a minute or a minute, relax your palm. At least four repetitions for each arm.

Thumbs up

Thumbs need stretching.

Raise your hand in front of you, turning the palm towards you and bend the thumb towards the index finger for half a minute to a minute, then relax it. Do this four times with each arm. Then, from the same position, extend the thumb over the palm so that the lower joint is tight and hold for half a minute to a minute. There are also four repetitions.

The most common causes of pain in the finger joints when bending are not only injuries and infections, but also overuse. If your finger joint is sick, you must take urgent measures: first of all, consult a specialist doctor - a surgeon, neurologist or traumatologist. To relieve pain, make joints more mobile and muscles stronger, exercise your fingers and palm regularly.